Aphodius rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common and widespread throughout England in herbivore dung, usually many specimens in a single sample. Adults emerge from dung during the evening and flight begins as the light fades, continuing until at least 2am. Disturbing dung on Common Moor during August 2006 attracted hundreds of specimens. Commonly attracted to U.V. light in various habitats. Adults appear in early June, or a little later depending on season, initially in small numbers but within a week or so become very common. Individuals are usually netted in flight or swept from various situations before they appear in dung e.g throughout Whippendell wood, Croxley moor and commonly at town centre M.V. light. During early August on Common moor they are the dominant species, being found flying in swarms after sunset, when disturbing dung immediately attracts them by the hundred. Often found beneath the soil surface underneath dung.

Distinctive due to its large size, 9-13mm, equilateral scutellum which is usually around 10% of the sutural length, colouration; dark brown to almost black with the head and pronotum often slightly darker. Pronotum with at least some large punctures among the evenly distributed fine puncturation, a character unique to rufipes among species ≥ 9mm.

Description from 4 Watford specimens at X10